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SCOPE OF INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY

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Industrial Microbiology:
Industrial microbiology may be defined as the study of the large-scale and profit motivated production of microorganisms or their products for direct use, or as inputs in the manufacture of other goods. Thus yeasts may be produced for direct consumption asfood for humans or as animal feed, or for use in bread-making; their product, ethanol,may also be consumed in the form of alcoholic beverages, or used in the manufacture of perfumes, pharmaceuticals industry, etc. Industrial microbiology is clearly a branch of biotechnology and includes the traditional and nucleic acid aspects. Pharmaceutical microbiology is the applied branch of microbiology which allows pharmacists to manufacture pharmaceuticals from microorganisms either directly or with the use of some product produced by them.  Other aspects of pharmaceutical microbiology include research and development for manufacturing of various anti- tumours, anti-microbial agents. Microbes have been used to produc…

GLASS MICROBIOLOGY

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We’ve all seen at some point brightly-colored illustrations of viruses, most likely the feared HIV or an alien-like bacteriophage. These representations feed our imagination and help us understand the tiny but complex world of microbiology. “The problem is that you end up with a percentage of the public believing that viruses are these brightly coloured objects.These are often portrayed in newspapers as having an air of scientific authenticity and objective truth, whereas actually that isn’t the case. Viruses are so small they have no colour. They’re smaller than the wavelength of light,” says artist Luke Jerram In 2004, Jerram, who is based in Bristol, UK, came up with the idea of representing some of the deadliest pathogens in the world in a completely different way. The result is Glass Microbiology, a growing series of beautiful transparent sculptures, about a million times bigger than the microbes they represent. “For me, the transparent and colorless glassworks consider how the arti…

NEW DISCOVERIES: MARINE MICROBIOLOGY

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USC grad student brings back dynamic data from one of the world's most sophisticated research vessels, allowing scientists to grow organisms that have never been found in nature. “In the oceans where we work, better than 99 percent of the individual bacteria won’t grow in a lab,” Heidelberg said. “So we can’t do the first step that most people think of as the starting point for microbiology, which is growing the cells.” And that is where metagenomics comes in. Scientists take DNA sequence information extracted from entire microbial communities in their natural environment and compile the data in bulk. The interest in our lab has been looking at whether we can you use these really big DNA data sets to reconstruct the organisms that are providing their genomic information,” Tully said. Using data from the Tara Oceans expedition across the Atlantic, the largest marine microbial data set in existence, the USC team has a huge albeit unwieldy set of microbial genetic information to work wit…

TYPES OF HAIR INFECTION: TYPE 1

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Seborrheic dermatitis is not an infectious disease, but it can involve infection. Seborrheic dermatitis is first and foremost a skin condition, but it can also involve temporary hair loss if the dermatitis is located on the scalp or other terminal-haired skin areas. The dermatitis presents as scaly, sometimes oily, inflamed skin that can be itchy or even painful to touch. This is an inflammatory condition the cause of which is not well understood, although there does seem to be a genetic component and Caucasians, particularly of Celtic descent, are most susceptible. It seems that the sebaceous glands attached to the hair follicles begin to produce a very rich form of sebum. The sebum contains fewer free fatty acids and squalene but increased amounts of triglycerides and cholesterol. In part, the trigger for may be androgen steroids. Times of hormone fluctuation, such as during puberty, can activate the onset of seborrheic dermatitis. Seborrheic dermatitis can also be observed in some …

VETERINARY MICROBIOLOGY: NEW FINDINGS

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Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of mule deer, white-tailed deer, elk, moose, and reindeer. As of 2016, CWD had been found in members of the deer family only.First recognized as a clinical "wasting" syndrome in 1967 in mule deer in a wildlife research facility in northern Colorado, USA, it was identified as a TSE in 1978 and has spread to free-ranging and captive populations in 23 US states and two Canadian provinces.CWD is typified by chronic weight loss leading to death. No relationship is known between CWD and any other TSEs of animals or people. Although reports in the popular press have been made of humans being affected by CWD, a study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention suggests, More epidemiologic and laboratory studies are needed to monitor the possibility of such transmissions".The epidemiological study further concluded, "as a precaution, hunters should avoid eating deer and elk tissues known t…

FOOD BORNE VIRAL INFECTIONS: TYPE 2

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Rota viruscauses severe, watery diarrhea that can lead todehydration. Anyone can get rota virus, but the illness occurs most often in babies and young children. Rotaviruses  are responsible for many (but not all) cases of viral gastroenteritis, which causes inflammation of the stomach and intestines. People may use the terms “stomach virus” or “stomach flu” to refer to viral gastroenteritis, which causes nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.
Rotavirus is the most common cause of diarrhoeal disease among infants and young children. It is a genus of double-stranded RNA viruses in the familyReoviridae. Nearly every child in the world is infected with rotavirus at least once by the age of five.Immunity develops with each infection, so subsequent infections are less severe; adults are rarely affected.There are nine species of this virus, referred to as A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H and I. Rotavirus A, the most common species, causes more than 90% of rotavirus infections in humans.
The vir…

MICROBES IN HEALTH AND DISEASES: CURRENT RESEARCH

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Scientists and physicians at Loyola University Chicago and Loyola Medicine were the first to publish groundbreaking research that debunked the common belief that urine in healthy women is sterile.

Expanding on this finding, a new study published in Nature Communications has found that the bladder not only contains bacteria, but the microbes are similar to those found in the vagina. The new finding could lead to improved diagnostic tests and treatments for urinary tract infections and other urinary tract disorders.

Researchers sequenced the genes of 149 bacterial strains from 77 women. While the microbiota (community of microorganisms) found in the bladder and vagina were similar, they were markedly distinct from the microbiota found in the gastrointestinal tract.

It's not surprising the microbiota of the bladder and vagina are similar, since the organs are connected by the urethra. It appears that bacteria travel between the bladder and the vagina, effectively creating one microbiota…